On the Wire
Chomsky In the News
No current headlines.

Access Your PC from Anywhere
Syntax
Some Basic Concepts in Government and Binding Theory
Table of Contents
1 Sisterhood
2 Government (1)
3 Dominance
4 Immediate Dominance
5 Precedence
6 Immediate Precedence
7 C-Command (1)
8 Government (2)
9 C-Command (2)
10 Government (3)
11 X-Bar Phrase Structure
12 Assimilation of S'
13 A-positions
14 A'-positions

1 Sisterhood

Here are some syntax review notes from Haegeman, Chapter 2:
     VP
   /  \
 /      \
V         NP
V and NP are in a relationship of sisterhood. They are daughters of the same parent or mother, VP.

2 Government (1)

A governs B if
(i) A is a governor;
(ii) A and B are sisters.
Governors are heads.
When a V governs an element [its complement or object] and assigns an internal theta role to it, we say that it theta-governs this element. Also: If X is a head and it governs Y then X head-governs Y.
Recall that a verb governs an object, and the head of a phrase governs the complement.

3 Dominance

Node A dominates node B if and only if A is higher up in the tree than B and if you can trace a line from A to B going downwards.

4 Immediate Dominance

A node dominates another with no intervening node between them.

5 Precedence

Node A precedes node B if and only if A is to the left of B and neither A dominates B nor B dominates A.

6 Immediate Precedence

If a node A precedes a node B and there is no intervening node, then A immediately precedes B.

7 C-Command (1)

Node A c-commands node B if and only if
(i) A does not dominate B and B does not dominate A; and
(ii) the first branching node dominating A also dominates B.

8 Government (2)

A governs B if and only if
(i) A is a governor; and
(ii) A c-commands B and B c-commands A.

9 C-Command (2)

A c-commands B if and only if A does not dominate B and every X that dominates A also dominates B.
For the choice of X in C-command (2), two options are considered. When X is equated with the first branching node we obtain the c-command definition given in C-command (1). This structural relation is sometimes referred to as strict c-command. Alternatively, X is interpreted as a maximal projection. Under the latter interpretation of (2), A m-commands B.

10 Government (3)

A governs B if and only if
(i) A is a governor; and
(ii) A m-commands B; and
(iii) no barrier intervenes between A and B.
Maximal projections are barriers to government.
Governors are heads.

11 X-Bar Phrase Structure

The following rules express the general format for phrase structure:
XP  -->  Spec; X'
X'* -->  X'; YP
X'  -->  X; YP.

12 Assimilation of S'

The structure of S' can be assimilated to the X'-format as follows:
CP  -->   Spec; C'
C'  -->   C; IP

13 A-positions

A-positions are potential theta positions, positions to which a theta role can be assigned, i.e. positions such as [Spec, IP] -- that is, the subject position -- and the NP dominated by V'; [NP, V'] -- that is, the verb's complement or object. A-positions are not necessarily assigned a theta role: The subject position may be occupied by an expletive element. Still it counts as an A-position. In traditional terms, we might say that A-positions correspond to positions associated with grammatical functions.

14 A'-positions

A'-positions are often defined negatively: They are positions that are not A-positions. [Spec, CP] -- that is, the complementizer -- and adjuncts are standardly considered A'-positions.
Recall that English's four complementizers are that, if, whether, for.
Google       

Criticism.com Web

cover artSyntax: A Generative Introduction (Introducing Linguistics)
Blackwell Publishers
New $45.95
cover artSyntactic Structures (2nd Edition)
Walter de Gruyter
New $20.95
cover artTransformational Grammar : A First Course (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
Cambridge University Press
New $46.30
cover artGovernment and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program: Principles and Parameters in Syntactic Theory (Generative Syntax)
Blackwell Publishers
New $57.95
cover artA Course In Minimalist Syntax: Foundations and Prospects (Generative Syntax)
Blackwell Publishers
New $39.95
cover artSemantic Structures (Current Studies in Linguistics)
The MIT Press
New $35.00
cover artSecond Language Syntax: A Generative Introduction
Blackwell Publishers
New $54.95
cover artElements of Grammar: : Handbook of Generative Syntax (International Handbooks of Linguistics)
Springer
New $192.00
cover artEnglish Syntax - 2nd Edition
The MIT Press
New $38.96
cover artThe Syntax of Noun Phrases : Configuration, Parameters and Empty Categories (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics)
Cambridge University Press
New $29.99
(Prices May Change)
Privacy Information

cover artItalian Syntax : A Government-Binding Approach (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory)
Springer
New $29.00
cover artChomsky's Minimalism
Oxford University Press, USA
New $35.00
cover artSyntax and Human Experience (Studies in Contemporary Linguistics)
University Of Chicago Press
New $39.00
cover artMinimalist Analysis (Generative Syntax, 3)
Blackwell Publishers
New $44.95
cover artA Feature-Based Syntax Of Functional Categories: The Structure, Acquisition And Specific Impairment of Functional Systems (Studies in Generative Grammar) (Studies in Generative Grammar)
Mouton de Gruyter
New $109.20
cover artParameters of Slavic Morphosyntax (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)
Oxford University Press, USA
New $55.00
cover artThe Syntactic Phenomena of English
University Of Chicago Press
New $48.60
cover artMove! a Minimalist Theory of Construal (Generative Syntax, Number 5)
Blackwell Publishers
New $44.95
cover artPhrase Structure and Grammatical Relations in Tagalog (Center for the Study of Language and Information - Lecture Notes)
Center for the Study of Language and Inf
New
cover artGrammar for Grammarians : Prescriptive, Descriptive, Generative, Contextual
Parlay Press
New $26.37
(Prices May Change)
Privacy Information